Until last March, Kari and Britt Altizer of Richmond, Va., put in long hours at work, she in life insurance sales and he as a restaurant manager, to support their young family. Their lives were frenetic, their schedules controlled by their jobs.
Then the pandemic shutdown hit, and they, like millions of others, found their world upended. Britt was briefly furloughed. Kari, 31, had to quit to care for their infant son. A native of Peru, she hoped to find remote work as a Spanish translator. When that didn’t pan out, she took a part-time sales job with a cleaning service that allowed her to take her son to the office. But as the baby grew into a toddler, that wasn’t feasible, either. Meanwhile, the furlough prompted her husband, 30, to reassess his own career. “I did some soul searching. During the time I was home, I was gardening and really loving life,” says Britt, who grew up on a farm and studied environmental science in college. “I realized working outdoors was something I had to get back to doing.”
Today, both have quit their old jobs and made a sharp pivot: they opened a landscaping business together. “We are taking a leap of faith,” Kari says, after realizing the pre-pandemic way of working simply doesn’t make sense any more. Now they have control over their schedules, and her mom moved nearby to care for their son. “I love what I’m doing. I’m closer to my goal of I get to go to work, I don’t have to go to work,” she says. “We aren’t supposed to live to work. We’re supposed to work to live.”
As the post-pandemic great reopening unfolds, millions of others are also reassessing their relationship to their jobs. The modern office was created after World War II, on a military model – strict hierarchies, created by men for men, with an assumption there is a wife to handle duties at home. Now, there’s a growing realization that the model is broken. Millions of people have spent the past year re-evaluating their priorities. How much time do they want to spend in an office, versus working from home. Where do they want to live, if they can work remotely. Do they want to switch careers. For many people, this has become a moment to literally redefine what is work.
More fundamentally, the pandemic has masked a deep unhappiness that a startling number of Americans have with the workplace. During the stressful months of quarantine, job turnover plunged; people were just hoping to hang on to what they had, even if they hated their jobs. For many more millions of essential workers, there was never choice but to keep showing up at stores, on deliveries, and in factories, often at great risk to themselves (with food and agricultural workers facing the greatest risk of death from remaining on the job). But now millions of white collar professionals and office workers appear poised to jump. Anthony Klotz, an associate professor of management at Texas A&M University, set off a viral tweetstorm by predicting “the great resignation is coming.” SHRM, the society of human resource professionals, predicts a “tsunami” of turnover.
But in a sense those conversations miss a much more consequential point. The true significance isn’t what we are leaving; it’s what we are going toward. In a stunning phenomenon, people are abandoning not just jobs but switching occupations. This is a radical reassessment of our careers, a great reset in how we think about work. A Pew survey in February found that 66% of unemployed people want to switch occupations – and significantly, that phenomenon is common to those at every income level, not just the privileged high earners. A third of those surveyed have started taking courses or job retraining. Pew doesn’t have comparable earlier data, but in a 2016 survey, 80% of people reported being somewhat or very satisfied with their jobs.
Early on in the pandemic, Lucy Chang Evans, a 48-year-old Naperville, Ill., civil engineer, quit her job to help her three kids with remote learning while pursuing an online MBA. Homebound, “I was a lot more introspective,” she says, and realized she’s done with toxic workplaces: “I feel like I’m not willing to put up with abusive behavior at work anymore.” She also plans to pivot into a more meaningful career, focused on tackling climate change. “I want to be able to look my children in the eye and tell them I did something that will benefit their future world,” she says.
The deep unhappiness with jobs points to a larger problem in how workplaces are structured. The line between work and home has been blurring for decades – and with the pandemic, has been obliterated completely for many of us. Meanwhile, the class divide between white-collar workers and those with hourly on-site jobs – grocery clerks, bus drivers, delivery people – has not only widened but become painfully visible. During the pandemic, nearly half of all employees with advanced degrees were working remotely, while more than 90% of those with a high school degree or less had to show up in person, CoStar found.
Business leaders are as confused as the rest of us – perhaps more so – when it comes to navigating the multiple demands and expectations of the new workplace. Consider their conflicting approaches to remote work. Tech firms including Twitter, Dropbox, Shopify and Reddit are all allowing employees the option to work at home permanently, while oil refiner Phillips 66 brought back most staff to its Houston headquarters almost a year ago. Target and Walmart have both been criticized for allowing corporate staff to work remotely, while low-paid workers faced potential COVID-19 exposure on store and warehouse floors.
In the financial industry, titans like Blackstone, JP Morgan and Goldman Sachs expect employees to be back on site this summer. JP Morgan CEO Jamie Dimon recently declared that remote work “doesn’t work for those want to hustle, it doesn’t work in terms of spontaneous idea generation” and that even though “you know, people don’t like commuting, but so what .”
Illustration by Bratislav Milenkovic for TIME
There’s a real risk that office culture could devolve into a class system, with onsite employees favored over remote workers. WeWork’s CEO Sandee Mathrani, recently insisted that only the “least engaged are very comfortable working from home,” a stunning indictment that discounts working parents everywhere and suggests that those who might need flexibility – like those caring for small children or elderly relatives – couldn’t possibly be ambitious in their careers.
Mathrani’s comments are yet another reminder that the pandemic shutdown has been devastating for women, throwing into high relief just how inhospitable and precarious the workplace can be for caretakers. Faced with the impossible task of handling the majority of childcare and homeschooling while working remotely, more than 4.2 million women dropped out of the labor force between February 2020 and April – and nearly 2 million still haven’t returned. Oxfam calculates that women globally lost a breathtaking $800 billion in income in 2020. Women’s progress in the U.S. workplace has been set back by more than three decades.
Despite Mathrani’s assertion, there’s little evidence that remote employees are less engaged. There is, however, plenty of evidence that we’re actually working more hours – while getting less done. A study by Harvard Business School found that people at home were working on average 48 minutes more per day. A new research paper from the University of Chicago and University of Essex found remote workers upped their hours by 30%, yet didn’t increase productivity, a troubling development that shows the urgent need to rewrite that line between work and home.
All this comes at a moment when business and culture have never been more intertwined. As work has taken over people’s lives and Americans are doing less together outside the office, more and more of people’s political beliefs and social life are defining the office. In thousands of Zoom meetings over the last year employees have demanded that their leaders take on systemic racism, sexism, transgender rights, gun control and more. Diversity, inclusion and corporate responsibility have become major themes. People have increasingly outsized – perhaps impossibly outsized – expectations of their employers. For the first time, business surpassed non-profits to become the most trusted institution globally this year, according to the Edelman Trust Barometer, which has been measuring trust for two decades. The survey found that people are looking to business – not government – to take an active role tackling racism, climate change, misinformation and vaccine hesitancy.
“Employees, customers, shareholders- all of these stakeholder groups- are saying you’ve got to deal with some of these issues,” says Ken Chenault, a former chief executive of American Express. “If people are going to spend so much time at a company, they really want to believe that the mission and behavior of the company is consistent with, and aligned with, their values.” Hundreds of top executives signed on to a statement that he and Ken Frazier, the CEO of Merck, organized this year opposing “any discriminatory legislation” in the wake of Georgia’s new voting laws. Yet those same moves have landed executives in the crosshairs of conservative politicians. “You give the woke mob concession after concession,” Florida Sen. Rick Scott wrote in an open letter to “Woke Corporate America,” warning, “The backlash is coming.”
That points to the central dilemma facing us all as we rethink how we work. Multiple surveys suggest Americans are eager to work remotely at least part of the time – the ideal consensus seems to be coalescing around three days in the office and two days remote. Yet the hybrid model comes with its own complexities. If managers with families and commutes choose to work remotely, but younger employees are on site, the junior employees will lack opportunities to absorb corporate culture or get the mentoring they need. Hybrid work could also limit those serendipitous office interactions – the casual conversation in the hallway or waiting for the elevator – that lead to opportunities, promotions and breakthrough ideas.
Yet if done correctly, there’s a chance to bring balance back into our lives, to a degree that we haven’t seen at least since the widespread adoption of email and cell phones. Not just parents, but all employees would be better off with more flexible time to recharge, exercise, and, oh yeah, sleep. There’s also a hidden benefit in a year of sweatpants-wearing and Zoom meetings: a more casual, more authentic version of our colleagues, with unwashed hair, pets, kids and laundry all on display. That too would help level the playing field, especially for professional women who, over the course of their careers, spend thousands of hours more than men just getting ready for work.
There are glimmers of progress. During the pandemic, as rates of depression and anxiety soared – to 40% of all U.S. adults, quadruple previous levels – a number of companies began offering enhanced mental health services and paid “recharge” days, among them LinkedIn, Citigroup, Red Hat, Indeed.com and SAP. Some companies are offering subsidized childcare, including Microsoft, Facebook, Google and Home Depot, all of which have expanded existing plans. Separately, more than 200 businesses, along with the advocacy group Time’s Up, recently created a coalition to push for child and elder care solutions. It’s essential that these measures stay in place once the pandemic winds down – and that other companies, most of which don’t offer these benefits, step up as well.
We have an unprecedented opportunity right now to reinvent, to create workplace culture almost from scratch. Over the past decades, various types of businesses have rotated in and out of favor–conglomerates in the ‘60s, junk bonds in the ‘80s, tech in the ‘aughts – but the basic workplace structure, of office cubicles and facetime, has remained the same. It’s time to allow the creative ideas to flow. For example, companies are stuck with millions of square feet of now-unused office space – sublet space soared by 40% from late 2019 to this year, CoStar found. Why not use that extra space for daycare? Working parents of small children would jump at the opportunity to have a safe, affordable option, while having their kids close by. In Richmond, Kari Altizer says if the finance industry had daycare and remote work options, she wouldn’t have had to quit her job in the first place.
Now would also be a good time to finally dump the 9-to-5, five-day workweek. For plenty of job categories, that cadence no longer makes sense. Multiple companies are already experimenting with four-day workweeks, including Unilever New Zealand; in a first, Spain is rolling out a small trial nationwide. Companies that have already tested the concept have reported significant productivity increases, from 20% (New Zealand’s Perpetual Guardian, which has since made the practice permanent) to 40% (Microsoft Japan, in a limited trial). That schedule too would be more equitable for working moms, many of whom work supposedly “part-time” jobs with reduced pay, yet are just as productive as their fully-paid colleagues. Meanwhile, the 9-to-5 office-hours standard becomes irrelevant, a relic of the past, during times when people don’t have meetings, especially when they’re working remotely or in different time zones.
While we’re at it, let’s kill the commute. Some companies are already creating neighborhood co-working hubs for those who live far from the home office. Outdoor retailer REI is going a step further: it sold its new Bellevue, Washington, headquarters in a cost-cutting move, and is now setting up satellite hubs in the surrounding Puget Sound area. Restaurants might get in on the act too; they could convert dining areas into coworking spaces during off hours, or rent out private rooms by the day for meetings and brainstorming sessions.
Some of the shortcomings of remote work – the lack of camaraderie and mentoring, the fear of being forgotten – may ultimately be bridged by new technology. Google and Microsoft are already starting to integrate prominent remote video conferencing capabilities more fully into meeting spaces, so that remote workers don’t seem like an afterthought. Augmented reality, which so far has been used most notably for games like Pokemon Go, could end up transforming into a useful work tool, allowing remote workers to “seem” to be in the room with onsite workers.
There are plenty of other ideas out there, and a popular groundswell of support for flexibility and life balance that makes sense for all of us. Will we get there, or will we slide back into our old ways? That’s on us. After 9/11, we were sure air travel would ground to a halt, and that tall skyscrapers were a thing of the past. Instead, air travel reached a new peak just three years later and more than three dozen buildings of 100 stories or more have already been built since then or are on the drawing board.
But perhaps the pandemic shutdown will, finally, lead to lasting change. “We aren’t robots,” Kari Altizer says. “Before Covid, parents would have to sacrifice their lives, in order to make the money to sustain their family. Before, we thought it was impossible to work with our children next to us. Now we know it is possible – but we have to change the ways in which we work.”